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№ 4-2014








When Writing “Culture” – We Mean “Education”, when Writing “Textbook” – We Mean “Primer”

P. 56




Educational Books of the 16th Century: Medieval Heritage and Birth of the Primer

Bezrogov V.G., Markarova T.S., Barannikova N.B.


The article presents the main characteristics and typology of educational literature for elementary schools during the period of transition from medieval heritage to the early modern period, from manuscripts to printed text of the 15th-16th centuries. The authors propose methodological approaches to the analysis of educational literature of the historical periods.

Keywords: school textbook, Ancient Greece & Rome, the Middle Ages, early modern period, book printing, educational book publishing, dialogue, grammar, religious education.
P. 732



Images of the World and the Systems of Values in Post-Reformation German Primers

Levinson K.A.


The article offers some preliminary remarks concerning the studying of world images and value systems reflected in post-reformation German primers. The author points out the epistemological difficulties in identifying the precise contents and the “bearers” of the views presented in the primers’ texts and illustrations. In particular, the meanings which are translated through latent education deserve a special analysis, as they are not expressed directly but are hidden in the contexts and subtexts of the textbooks.

Keywords: primers, textbooks, world image, school, Germany, value systems, history.
      P. 33–40



Eastern Slavic Primers of the 16th Century: A Comparative Analysis

Moshkova L.V.

The article presents a comparative analysis of the eastern Slavic primers, published in the 16th century on Ukrainian and Belarussian territory, from the primer published by Ivan Fedorov in 1574 to the “Nauka” textbook published by Lavrentiy and Stefan Zizaniy in 1596. The textbooks are also compared to other Slavic primers published in the same century in Poland, Germany, Italy, Bohemia and other countries. The author reveals the reasons for their similarities and differences, explains the processes which lead to the influence of other Christian confessions on eastern Slavic textbooks of the 16th century.

Keywords: eastern Slavic primers of the 16th century, Ivan Fedorov, contents of the primers, Lavrentiy Zizaniy, Stefan Zizaniy, Polish primers, primers for the Slavic population published in Tubingen, Venice and other cities.

      P. 41–51




Reading Books and Primers in Latvian in the 17th–18th Centuries: From Religious to Secular Content

Krūze A., Vugule Ē.


The history of Latvian primers and reading books of the 17th-18th centuries is divided into two periods: the period when religios literature completely fulfilled the functions of educational literature and the period when it began to be supplemented by secular texts. The article alalyses the content and design of religious literature, that served the function of textbooks, in the context of development of pedagogical thought, linguistics, history of culture, history of the school and individual authors. The author demonstrates that the textbook came into being when it became essential. The authors of the first primers and reading books were German pastors and literati, which had a good understanding of the everyday social reality and conditions of Latvian life, the pursuit of social freedom of the Latvian people and viewed the prevalent social norms as a whole with the goals and objectives of education.

Keywords: pedagogical thought, education, upbringing, reading book, primer, history of reading.

      P. 52–65



Modern Literature Study Aid Sets in Latvia

Kaļķe B., Stikute E.


The article explores the process of creation and publication of modern study aid sets in Latvia and presents the analysis of already published sets of literature study aids for grade 4 in terms of their content, structure and methodology. The research methods used in the article are based on the analysis of various sources (normative state documents that regulate the creation and publication of teaching aids for literature and literature study aid sets for grade 4) and scientific literature.

Keywords: teaching standard in literature, model of the school Literature curriculum, set of literature study aids for grade 4.

      P. 66–80


открыть The Sources of a Child’s Knowledge: Is the Textbook among Them?
Žogla I., Tuna A.

The article presents the results of the study of the sources from which elementary school students acquire their knowledge in Latvia. The conducted research established the extent of the textbooks compliance with the pedagogical paradigm oriented at independent study. The article proposes several criteria for the assessment of new-generation textbooks according to the study paradigm, provides an analysis of disagreements between teacher and student use of the criteria. The authors draw conclusions concerning the creation and use of modern textbooks, necessity of new approaches in teaching using electronic sources and shifting the accents in the textbook contents from the teaching paradigm to the study paradigm, as well as innovation in pedagogical education.

Keywords: textbooks, e-sources, new generation learning, problems of using textbooks, new developments, education in Latvia.
      P. 81–97



Educational Literature in Orthodox Schools of Liflyandia between the Second Half of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Centuries as a Method of Inclusion of non-Russian subjects into the Empire

Paert I.

The article focuses on the textbooks used in the Orthodox schools of Livland in the period between 1840 and 1917. The intention here is to reconstruct the functioning of the textbook in the Imperial situation, that is historical and geographical conditions when education was under the influence of heterogenenous political and cultural factors. This had a reflection on polilinguality, multiconfessionality and heterogeneous character of pedagogical principles in elementary school. The article is supported by the examples from the textbooks of religion, Russian and Estonian as well as the school readers.The activity of more than 470 schools in Livland, Estland and Courland had made an impact on the cultural, religious and social life of the Ostsee provinces of the Russian Empire. These schools have been established by the Russian government for the Estonian and Latvian converts to Orthodoxy in the 1840s. The provision of the textbooks for these schools had a spontaneous and ad hoc chanracheter, at least until the reforms of the 1880s.: some textbooks were written by Estonian and Latvian authors, others were translated from Russian. 

Keywords: textbooks, the Russian Empire, Ostsee provinces, Russian language, methods of language teaching, religion as a subject, readers, non-Russian schools, Orthodox church, Estonian language, national awakening, lieux de memoire.

      P. 98–124




Elementary School Textbook Control under Fascism: From the Establishment of the Central Commission for the Examination of School Textbooks to the Introduction of the State Textbook Standard

Sani R.

On the basis of a wide array of archival and printed documentation, the author reconstructs different forms, ways and stages through which Fascist Italy, beginning with the Gentile Reform of 1923, managed to exert direct ideology and politics on the elementary school textbook with the decision to introduce in all elementary school grades the so-called  State Schoolbooks (Testi unici di Stato) specially arranged according to the directives of the Fascist regime. 

Keywords: history of education, Italy, fascism, 20th century, school textbook, school reforms

      P. 125–137



Building National Identity in Post-Unitary Italy through Elementary School History Textbooks (1861–1900)

Ascenzi A.


This article demonstrates the importance of school textbooks for civic and political education of younger generations through the author’s analysis of a large body of elementary school history textbooks published during the first forty years of unification of Italy between 1961 and the end of the 19th century. The major concentration point of the article deals with the questions of origin and development of specific types of educational literature in conjunction with the growth of national school publishing houses, evolution of ideological contents of history textbooks for elementary schools depending on the changes of the political and cultural context of a given period, didactic use of history textbooks by elementary school teachers. 

Keywords: history of education, Italy, 19th century, teaching history; school textbooks; children's literature.

      P. 138–152



Teaching Ancient and Medieval History in Fascist and Soviet Schools during the Interwar Period: A Comparison of Elementary School Textbooks

Caroli D.

The article analyses the contents of Italian and Soviet textbooks of ancient and medieval history in order to compare not only the different views of the past and their use for ideoloagical objectives, which have been thoroughly studied by historians, but also the images of the ancient times and civilizations which were readily translated and popularized by both regimes in schools and throughout society.

Keywords: history of education, Italy, Soviet Union, 20th century, fascism and stalinism, teaching ancient and medieval history, school textbooks.

      P. 153–173




Major Trends in Elementary School Geometry Textbook Improvement in the Second Half of the 19th Century

Kondratyeva G.V.


The article examines the main trends оf improvement of the elementary school geometry textbook in the 19th century. The author proposes an original classification of the main directions and trends in textbook development. Well-known (A. Davidov, M. Kosinski, Z. Vulin), as well as practically forgotten (W.Volens) publications are taken into account.

Keywords: textbook, teaching geometry, second half of the 19th century.

       P. 174–180



The Village Close and Distant: The Image of the Village in Soviet and Post-Soviet Reading Books for Elementary Schools

Kozlova M.A.

The article describes the image of the village, created in elementary school textbooks. The research is based on the comparative perspective – analysis of the content of Soviet (1974-80), and post-Soviet (2004-05) textbooks. The analysis of the post-Soviet period textbooks revealed the dominance of the rural environment over the urban one, of the rural labor in the village over all other types. In the post-Soviet textbooks the descriptions of village life and work are much less detailed and informative than in the Soviet textbooks. The presented portrait of the village is a complex one (the village as a breadwinner, a laborer, a source of vitality, "root system" of the citizen, the keeper of traditions), but the national romantic component clearly dominates.

Keywords:elementary school, textbook, countryside, comparative analysis.
P. 181201



Udmurt People or Rural People? School Children’s Perception of the Rural Ethnic Culture Markers Presented in Primers

Vlasova T.A., Plotnikova A.P.


The article presents the results of the study of schoolchildren’s perception of ethnic culture representations. Compositions written by students of urban and rural schools have been compared. The content analysis of compositions based on a book picture shows social inequality between the city and the village as well as differentiation of  urban and rural areas rather than opposition of Udmurt and Russian ethnic traditions.

Keywords: educational sociology, regional educational policy, ethnic education, visual study.

P. 202–219




Gender and Professional Socialization in Textbooks for Elementary Schools and Preparatory Classes in 2000s

Kolosova E.A.


The article examines the problem of gender stereotype translation to preschool and elementary school children. The author analyses the possibility of elementary and preschool textbooks as channels of such gender stereotype translation. Means of gender socialization of preschool children used by textbooks as sources of information are defined through the description of the world of professions.

Keywords: gender socialization, professional socialization, gender roles, gender stereotypes, channels of gender stereotype translation, textbooks, content analysis.

       P. 219–223