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PROBLEMS OF MODERN EDUCATION

№ 3-2016

CONTENTS

 

 

 

Educational Philosophy             
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Reflections on modern training in philosophy

Shelkovnikov A. Yu.

The article is devoted to the problems of the contemporary teaching philosophy. The problem is that all modern textbooks on philosophy do not meet the high requirements of philosophy study. The aim of the article is to attract the attention to pre-revolutionary philosophy textbooks (domestic and foreign ones), thorough understanding of which is necessary for the revival of the tradition of writing textbooks of high quality. The results of this study are revealed in the recommendation of the particular books in a certain sequence. The novelty of this approach is the author`s philosophical and methodological grounds, representing the reconstruction of the philosophical systems of W. Wundt and G. I. Chelpanov.

Keywords:

philosophy, education, teaching, understanding, textbook.

P.7-13
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Skepticism as a worldview neutrality in the teaching of social-humanitarian disciplines

Gusev D. A.

The article deals with the philosophical problem of the responsibility of a teacher of social-humanitarian disciplines and substantiates the position, according to which the ability to minimize any conceptual loss, preferences and shifts in teacher’s professional activity is possible on the condition that he is ideologically skeptical. The novelty of the author’s position is the assertion that skepticism is, contrary to the common knowledge, not the negation and overthrow of all truths, but only – ideological neutrality, which allows a more adequate and tolerant to present students with a colourful palette of various ideological platforms in the form of competing scientific theories, philosophical concepts, religious beliefs and attitudes of ordinary consciousness, thereby giving them the possibility of genuinely free and reasoned personal ideological choice.

Keywords:

worldview, professional activity of the teacher, educational process,socialhumanitarian

P.14-23
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The apprenticeship philosophy, or some reflection on axiological grounds of the learning activity

Zykova M. N., Shneyder L. B.

The article deals with the phenomenon of apprenticeship in the value-semantic «happy-unhappy» paradigm; the possibility of such an aspect of analysis based on the psychological senses of the traditional national culture is grounded. On the example of the folklore text and context interpretation the possibilities of the traditional culture to promote the establishment and development of human activities are revealed.

Keywords:

text interpretation, an individual in the traditional culture, psychological affecting techniques, ways of understanding, psychological and pedagogical aspects of culture.

P.24-30
Philosophy of Art
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Platonism in Shakespeare

Florova V. S.

The Renaissance era saw the consistent revival of both Platonism and neo-Platonism. What became the most characteristic of the new era was reading Plato’s philosophy as, above all, a philosophy of love. The Renaissance culture made Plato’s Eros a principle linking the realm with divine and transcendental, giving it a Humanist interpretation. At least partially, this idea was derived from the pre-Renaissance culture of Medieval courtly love with its worship of the lady and emphasis upon the ‘God is love’ dogma. As a result, theory of Renaissance neo-Platonism is observable not only in works of philosophy, but in poetry as well – from the Italian poets of dolce stil novo to the English poets of Elizabethan era, such as Sidney, Spencer and Shakespeare. However, it is in Shakespeare’s works exactly that Platonism underwent a crucial transformation. The aesthetic system of the Sonnets became centred, rather than a static archetype or a transcendent idea of beauty, on a real and imperfect person. The function of the Fair Friend is set not as much by his representing the Platonic triunity of ‘truth, goodness and beauty’ as by the fact that, in Shakespeare’s world, the Platonic triunity is basically nonexistent outside the living ‘substance’ of the Friend. If Renaissance science was gradually shifting the centre of the universe from Earth to Sun, the anthropocentric view had finally established the centre of the spiritual universe in an individual’s mind. It is there that truth, goodness and beauty are rooted. Thus the basis of Shakespeare’s philosophy is not the Platonic ascent to the realm of ideas, but rather a descent into the self – a kind of Medieval confession. However, a confession is only made such by the presence of somebody authorized to hear it. This supreme authority is represented by the Fair Friend. The whole realm of transcendent is revealed to Shakespeare in the beloved one. The empyreal idea of Plato’s becomes – finally and irreversibly – an earthly human. Without this human-being nothing is possible: either harmony, or truth, or system, or the world itself. Without him everything disintegrates, and Time itself is ‘out of joint’.

Keywords:

Platonism, the idea of beauty,Plato’s theory of love, Shakespeare, confession.

P.31-38

Educational Psychology
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Psychological basis of pedagogical communication initiatives, or «pedagogy of Tom Sawyer»

Obukhov A. S.

Initiative is animportant element of the activity-pedagogy, its psychological basis. Creating a situation support for a student’s initiativeis thecentral task for the teacher who works not in the paradigm of knowledge translation, but in the activity-paradigm. Nuances of developing educational initiatives can be drawn from fiction. The article analyzes the situation taken from a book by Mark Twain which reveals some elements of the educational initiative in action.

Keywords:

pedagogical communication, cooperation, the impact, the initiative.

P. 39-50
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Features of positive personality traits of students of different forms
and courses of study

Yelshansky S. P., Anufriev A. F., Kamaletdinova Z. F., Saparin O. E.,

Semenov D. V.

The article presents the results of the study of the psychological characteristics of students of different courses and forms of education. We studied the specificity of positive personality traits, such as subjective well-being, happiness, hope, subjective success, the ability to define life goals, emotional maturity, awareness of the present, life satisfaction, commitment to personality growth and initiative to it, inclination for curiosity and exploration, motivation to search for meaning in life and awareness of the sense of gratitude. It has been found out that part-time students have the highest level of the initiative for personality growth, they are most satisfied with their lives, they are the happiest and least depressed in comparison with students of other forms of education, the «worst» figures by these parameters were shown by the part-time students of the evening form of education. During the process of education the depression of student in the Bachelor’s program increases while their level of emotional maturity decreases. Students in the master’s program, however, show more initiative for personality growth than those in the Bachelor’s program. The article may be of interest to all psychologists interested in issues of educational psychology and positive psychology.

Keywords:

psychological features of students, positive psychology, well-being, happiness, hope, gratitude, emotional maturity, personality growth, meaning of life.

P. 51-58
Personality Psychology
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Freedom of choice and self-determination of students in personality development educational programs

Kovaleva N. B.

The article raises the problem of search of the psychology and pedagogical technologies allowing to create conditions for the personality development on the basis of one’s free self-determination to vital values and the moral grounds of actions. The characteristics of some ideas of what freedom is and ways of its implementation in culture are given. Possibilities of the original «fableactivity » technologies of designing the situations of self-determination in the hypertext environment of the cultural samples realized in reflexive and position educational model are shown.

Keywords:

self-determination, act philosophy and act psychology, fableactivity technologies, positional reflection.

P. 59-65
Modernization of Education  
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The european “Lifelong learning” project and its realization in the german model «Weiterbildung»

Pisareva L. I.

The project created in the international organizations of the European Union – «education without borders», «training during life for all» – defined the directions of the educational policy development, specific goals and requirements for their realization in the European countries. The article considers their implementation on the example of Germany alongside with the attitude towards national traditions and features while solving the problems of continuous education and creating «their own» model.

Keywords:

European «lifelong education» project, European countries, international community, educational strategy, national features, German model of continuous education.

P. 66-81
Modern Education Theory
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“Kulturosoobraznost” in Russia

Bulkin A. P.

The article analyses “Kulturosoobraznost” as a term, a notion, a pedagogical law and a principle, discloses its formation and usage in practice and theory of education; the difficulty of defining the concept “Kulturosoobraznost” is connected with the transformation of the contents of notions “culture”, “enlightment’, “education”.

Keywords:

kulturosoobraznost, a term, a notion, a pedagogical law, a principle, education, culture, enlightment.

P. 82-91
History of Pedagogy and Education
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High sample of the classical heritage (to the 190th anniversary of the completion of the translation of «The Iliad» poem by N. I. Gnedich)

Rudnev V. N.

This article is devoted to the 190th anniversary from the date of completion of the translation of «the Iliad»poem by N. I. Gnedich. The author analyzes the problems of reading in the context of cultural-historical and general pedagogical issues.

Keywords:

reading, translation, culture, education.

P. 92-99
New Research in Education
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Issues about the education quality assuarence in the process of the professional development of teaching stuff

Yuldashev M. A.

The problems related with improving the efficiency of the professional development system of teaching stuff of the Educational Institutions and the feasible ways of their elimination have been reviewed in the article. Brief information about the Professional Retraining and Development of Public Education staff system of the Republic of Uzbekistan has been given.

Keywords:

system, Retraining, upgrading qualification education, educationist, development, block, module, efficiency, individualization, courses, listeners (course participants).

P. 100-106
Innovative Technologies in Education
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Virtual selection as a method of knowledge in the educational environment

Denisov D. P., Ogrizkov V. E.

A characteristic feature of the virtual systems and structures is that they are able to simulate the processes at any level of generalization. Being a specific method of forecasting virtual selection opens the synchronicity of the flow of knowledge and the dynamics of sensory experiences, and relevant at any stage of the educational process. The project of implementation of the virtual selection in the educational context, the ultimate goal of which is a stereotype of behavior of a student who can apply heavy duty portable devices harmoniously, for their own benefit, is proposed. The algorithm can be recommended for correcting the composition of educational groups and harmonious relationships between the volume of textual and visual information.

Keywords:

virtual, selection, algorithm, cluster,education.

P. 107-115
Young Scientists’ Vision
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The training of teachers in the system of higher biologicalhemical and chemical-pedagogical education for work with gifted pupils

Novik I. R., Zvereva K. A.

The article is devoted to the training of competent professionals to work with pupils with high cognitive abilities in Chemistry and Biology. The most effective forms of work with pupils gifted in Chemistry, methods of in-class and off-class learning used in the training of competent teachers of Chemistry and Biology in the Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University are discussed. The particular accent is put on the students’ selfstudy activity – an essential basis for shaping of their professionally significant personality traits that are so important while working with gifted children.

Keywords:

competence, higher education in Biology and Chemistry, pedagogical education in Chemistry, gifted children.

P. 116-130
New Publications
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Measuring future by past: The review on the book “Historical and pedagogical approach to the expert review of the innovation in education: scientific basis” by Michael Boguslavsky (Moscow, 2016, 118 p.)

Bezrogov V. G.

The review covers the monograph by Michael Boguslavsky that highlights the expert review of the innovation in education from the historical and pedagogical positions.

Keywords:

Michael Boguslavsky, expert reviewing, history, education.

P. 131-134